By O. Dolok. Lincoln University, Jefferson City Missouri.
These declarations help to prevent violation of copyright laws and to protect readers from being overwhelmed with information that is already in press cheap 160mg super p-force free shipping erectile dysfunction what age does it start. It is especially important not to present closely related analyses from the same study to two journals concurrently without disclosure to both journal editors buy generic super p-force 160 mg online erectile dysfunction surgery options. However, duplicate publication that comes to the notice of an editor will result in a prompt rejection and may result in disciplinary action from your institution or professional body. If the data are already in press, then a notice of duplicate publication may be published in the journal, perhaps without you as the author being given any prior notice. Such notices may also indicate withdrawal of the publication from the journal,5 which means that the article will be tracked by indexing services such as MEDLINE® as withdrawn. Most importantly, some editors have a strict policy of rejecting all future publications from authors who have submitted duplicate data to their journal. Most journals readily give permission for the reproduction of published figures and tables for which they have copyright, provided that the work is formally cited. However, you should be very careful when submitting data that are published in conference proceedings or in similar formats. However, the rules of duplicate publication do not preclude you from submitting a paper that contains data presented as an abstract or oral communication at a scientific meeting or a paper that has been rejected by another journal. It is generally accepted that results presented at scientific meetings in order to elicit peer review are from preliminary analyses and are not published in full. Scientific meetings are organised in order that researchers can exchange information with one other and are not primarily intended as a venue for releasing results to the public. John Ellard7 In many studies, especially large epidemiological or multicentre studies, the publication of more than one paper from a study is often justified. Publication may begin with a paper about a new method that was developed for the purpose of the study. This can then be followed by papers in which results directly related to the study aims are reported, perhaps in sequential stages. Further papers may follow that fulfil aims that were not planned when the study began but for which the data are appropriate. Although practices such as testing for all relationships between all variables (so called “data-dredging”) are unscientific, it is acceptable to make economical use of data that have been expensive to collect and that are appropriate for answering new questions. The first paper reported the development of a new questionnaire to measure the prevalence of chronic, persistent cough in epidemiological studies of children. The second and third papers report data from studies in which the questionnaire was used. The second paper was used to report evidence that children with symptoms of persistent cough do not have the same clinical features as children with clinically recognised asthma. Finally, in the third paper, the prevalence and risk factors for asthma and allergic illness in the two different countries was compared. Each paper has a clear, individual message and avoids the duplicate publication of data in the other papers. This process makes sense because the results reported in the three papers answer discrete questions and could not have been compressed into the constraints of a single paper. Because it was unlikely that one journal would have taken all three papers, each journal was chosen because the paper fell within its scope. Measuring persistent cough in epidemiological studies: development of a questionnaire and assessment of prevalence in two countries. Prevalence of atopy, asthma symptoms and diagnosis, and the management of asthma: comparison of an affluent and a non-affluent country. Policies for data sharing Premature release of research data before careful analysis of results, and without the independent scientific peer review that is part of the normal process of publication of scientific research, would also increase the risk of public disclosure of erroneous or misleading conclusions and confuse the public. In many large research studies from which more than one paper will be published, strict policies are needed for data sharing to avoid duplicate publication and to specify each researcher’s rights and responsibilities. It is the duty of the stakeholders in these studies to make collective deci- sions, in advance, about many aspects of publication. The stakeholders will include the principal investigators and other researchers, such as the divisional or departmental head, the project coordinator, the data manager, the research assistants, research fellows, postdoctoral students, and/or a statisti- cian, etc.
Additional imaging methods Computer tomography Progression in adulthood CT is suitable for checking rotation and has been used in In scolioses with a Cobb angle of over 50° on completion a number of clinical studies discount 160 mg super p-force amex erectile dysfunction caused by lisinopril. Consequences of scoliosis Thanks to investigations involving substantial numbers Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients and observation periods of up to 50 years we MRI is a non-invasive generic 160 mg super p-force mastercard erectile dysfunction causes depression, but expensive, method that can now know a great deal about the consequences of sco- be used for identifying intraspinal problems (anoma- lioses [3, 102, 103]. MRI is indicated if neurological symp- untreated scolioses is moderate after 50 years. It is not the incidence of back pain is increased, this is rarely seri- suitable for monitoring the progress of a condition as ous . In the lumbar area, the outwardly visible cosmetic impairment only starts to appear from a lumbar prominence angle of 15° (corresponding to a Cobb angle of approx. Asymmetry of the waist, how- ever, can have a more detrimental effect on the cosmetic 3 appearance. Risk of progression in relation to age and the initial angle The probability of back pain is increased in: of the scoliosis. The probability of back pain is only slightly or moderately increased in patients with thoracic scolioses [3, 103]. Paralysis Spontaneously occurring paralysis does not occur in id- iopathic scoliosis (paralysis only occurs in cases of con- genital kyphosis and secondary scoliosis resulting from a tumor). Although commonly used for many years it only provides an incomplete description of the possible types. This distinguishes 6 types of a b scoliosis, each of which can be subdivided according to the extent of lumbar deviation (⊡ Fig. Example of rapid progression of a scoliosis in a female sification is more reliable than that of King and is patient between the ages of (a) 11 years and (b) 17 years suitable for establishing the indication for modern surgi- cal procedures. Structural scolioses are defined by the measurement of a Reduction in life expectancy minimum scoliosis angle of 25° in lateral inclination on In serious cases (particularly thoracic scolioses, from ap- the functional x-ray. Contributory factors are as of the standing patient in order to determine the extent of follows: lumbar deviation. Treatment objectives ▬ Thoracic rigidity: thorax fixed in the expiration posi- ▬ Prevent progression tion. Exercises ▬ Brace treatment Cosmetic impairment Electrical stimulation An inconvenient rib hump, produced by rotation, occurs Operation particularly in C-shaped thoracic scolioses, and starts to 81 3 3. The vari- between 10° and 40°, »–« refers to a kyphosis of <10° and »1« a kypho- ous types (1–6, A–C) must be managed by differing surgical approach- sis of >40°. In the sagittal plane, the kyphotic angle is additionally measured cent scolioses, i. Even for this age group we only Whether physical therapy by itself can prevent the pro- record an x-ray if the clinical parameters suggest the oc- gression of the scoliosis or even improve the condition, currence of progression. The effect of exercises on the extent of the curvature has largely been rejected in the Plaster cast and brace treatment relevant English literature. Doctors in German-speak- Plaster cast and brace treatment is a non-surgical option ing countries are familiar with the treatment developed whose efficacy has been scientifically proven. A recently published con- In 1579, Ambroise Paré fitted 2 metal plates to the front trolled study showed, for the first time, that the scoliosis and back of the body to straighten a crooked spine. In of patients treated according to the Schroth method 1650, Glisson introduced traction treatment, primarily progressed significantly less than that of untreated pa- for the correction of rachitic scoliosis. Ideally, however, these results should be niques were developed in the 19th century. In 1895, confirmed by a study conducted independently of the Friedrich Hessing used a brace with an additional neck Schroth Clinic. In 1927, the »turnbuckle cast« was cover that the efficacy of this well-known tradition- introduced by Risser. In this technique the patient was al treatment has now been scientifically documented. In 1952, Risser presented nitely play a crucial role, more so than for other (passive) the »localizer cast«, a more sophisticated form of the treatments.